The bavarian Kataster
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The historical bavarian Kataster
Synonyms for the original latin/greek word Kataster which is used in the german language are cadaster, cadastre, land register or land registry. In the following I am using the german word Kataster. The Kataster was first generated in this form in the kingdom of Bavaria about 1808/1810. The commission was a central office for the whole kingdom. Starting point was for the part in upper Bavaria the region Isar before Bavaria became a kingdom. The main head for this action was Graf Montgelas, who was already the main consultant to Maximilian von Zweibrücken when he was not yet the Kurfürst (Elector) of Bavaria. Maximilian von Zweibrücken became elector of Bavaria 1799, 1806 King of Bavaria. Starting 1808 all territories which now were part of Bavaria such as Schwaben (Swabia), Franken (Franconia) and the former independent territories of the bishops such as Freising, Augsburg, Eichstätt, Bamberg, Würzburg, part of Salzburg (the other and major part of Salzburg became a part of Austria), Regensburg and Passau (the other an minor part became a part of Austria) became already 1802/1803 a part of Bavaria, also many abbeys which where independant territories such as Kempten, Ottobeuren, Roggenburg, Wettenhausen. Swabia and main parts of Franconia became part of Bavaria in 1806, other parts of Franconia such as Ansbach and Bayreuth came to Bavaria at 1810. At 1814/1815 some parts such as Tirol/Vorarlberg, Salzburg came to Austria (Tirol/Vorarlberg and major part of Salzburg) and Würzburg came to Bavaria. At 1816 a new region at the left Rhine side called Pfalz came to Bavaria. This new region contained territories of the Kurfürstentum (electorate) of Pfalz and Herzogtum (duchy) of Zweibrücken where Maximilian and before 1795 his brother were dukes of Zweibrücken. However since 1792/1794 all former german territories lying left of the Rhine side became part of France. At the Wiener Kongress 1814/1815 this was new regulated. This small part of the history should be sufficient to explain the time of 1808 where the Kataster was generated.
Kriegshaber, former a village of the austrian Markgrafschaft (margravate) Burgau became like other territores of Swabia at 1806 part of the kingdom of Bavaria.
The starting point of generating the Kataster for Swabia was at 1808/1810, Kriegshaber got the Kataster 1810. Each town and village of Bavaria had a separate Kataster (at 1808 Bavaria had 7700 small villages or bigger towns, called Steuergemeinde (parish or municipal for tax). In terms of Kriegshaber the ground of Kriegshaber was measured and a map was generateted at 1809 see here. This Kataster was improved by the new measurement at 1831 see here with the following new Kataster which was finished at 1840. Here the realty became new numbers and the procedures to generate the Kataster were improved. In the following I am speeking only from the Kataster of 1840 and following. Since 1840 all numbers for the realty stayed unchanged at least for the remaining part of the ground. If a part of a realty was sold, then the sold part got a number such as 200 1/2 or 200 1/3, later, at 1944, it was written as 200/2 or 200/3 which is valid till nowadays. If a current house has a realty number 453/33, you can check the map of 1831 and you will find the former farmer who sold a part of his ground with the number 453 lateron. Meanwhile no more farms exist in Kriegshaber, they sold the whole land after 1950.
The task for the Kataster was to get taxes, now for all houses and realties including the realty of the church (which at 1802/1803 lost all former territories) and the nobility who had to pay at least partly no taxes in former times. The tax for the houses was called Haussteuer (tax for houses) and for the other land Rustikalsteuer (tax for the ground, land). All houses had to pay taxes but some realty like the ground for the building of a church or the cemetary or the streets were excluded, however these realties got a number. Until 1848/1852 some people had to pay a so called Dominikalsteuer, tax for the owner of the ground, which could be an earl or a baron or a Stiftung (foundation). In terms of Kriegshaber we had the baron of Rehlingen and the Paritätische Stiftung, the former Hospitalstiftung which was founded by the bishop of Augsburg in the Middle Ages. Our three farms belonged either to the baron of Rehlingen or the Paritätische Stiftung. A big part of the population in Kriegshaber were jews which bought their ground from the former Markgraf of Burgau, the time, when Kriegshaber belonged to Austria. This started in the middle of the 16th century. At 1800 one third of the population were jews (300 jews, 700 christs). After 1848 many of the jews became citizen of Augsburg or other cities or towns where they were not allowed to settle in terms of Augsburg since 1348 or 1438/1440. These realties for the jews were "ludeigen", that means they had not to pay the Dominikalsteuer, but they had to pay this amount when they bought the ground or other taxes like the tax for the jews. The new generated taxes called Haussteuer and Rustikalsteuer had to be payed to the Rentamt (finance office) of the local region Göggingen, lateron Augsburg. At 1848/1852 the Dominikalsteuer could be changed to a final amount which was about 18 times of the yearly tax. For this purpuse the bank "Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank" was founded, one major owner of the bank were jews. The bank payed this whole amount but normally the farmer had not the money availabe therefore he had to obtain a hypothec (hypothecary credit) from this bank. The bank payed the whole amount to the state (kingdom von Bavaria), which released bonds having interests for the former owners like the nobiliy or the foundations.
Now some comments about the history of our village Kriegshaber. The history of our region before the Roman Empire is only documented from outsite people like the Greeks or the Romans. The people called Kelten (celts) did not have a scripture at this time.
Our region became part of the Roman Empire at 15 bef. Chr. which ended in the fifth century. The original duchy of Bavaria became a separate state at the middle of the 6th century. Lateron (with Charlemagne at 787) to the kingdom of Franconia which contained almost all regions which is now Germany, France, parts of Italy, Netherland and Belgium. At the 10th century we had again a separate duchy of Bavaria which belonged to later so-called "Heiliges Römisches Reich" which ended at August 1806. The western boarder of this duchy of Bavaria was the river Lech. A duchy of Schwaben (Swabia) was on the westside of the Lech, containing Augsburg and the region with Kriegshaber. However Kriegshaber was not known in written sources. The first written source where Kriegshaber was mentioned is at 1357, where the bishop of Augsburg lend two farms to citizens of Augsburg. The duchy of Swabia as a bigger duchy came to an end after the Staufer died out in the middle of the 13th century. Now we find many separate territories bigger ones und very small ones. The region where our Kriegshaber is located stayed under the souvereignity of the bishop of Augsburg. This changed when Maximilian I. became king of the German Empire. We have a source of 1492 called "Feuerstattguldenregister" (a register which contained all houses with a stove, that means were people lived the whole year), here we find Kriegshaber having five houses, four belonged to the Heiliggeistspital (a foundation of the church with a hospital) and the fifth house of Kriegshaber belonged to a citizen of Augsburg. At 1750 we have another important source, where colonel Kollefel of Innsbruck reporting to the Habsburger, the emperors of the empire counted all houses and described all towns and villages for the Markgrafschaft (margravate) Burgau. Now we find 24 houses with a stove, 19 belonged to the margravate of Burgau (mostly owned by jews), two houses, one house was a farm and an inn called Marstaller belonged to the Heiliggeistspital, two farms belonged to the baron of Rehlingen and one house to the priests of the cathedral of Augsburg. This size was about the same until the end of the empire at 1806 when Napoleon Bonaparte was the important ruler for most parts of western and central Europe, (perhaps some more small houses were built in Kriegshaber) where the margravate of Burgau and many other territories of Swabia came to Bavaria. At January 1st of 1806 we had the kingdom of Bavaria. The kingdom of Bavaria had at 1808 17 regions which had the names of rivers such as Isar, Donau, Lech a.s.o. Lateron at the time of King Ludwig I. (1837) we have divisions of the former history based regions, we had now 8 Kreise, today called Regierungsbezirk (divisons), our region was part of the division Schwaben. This reglementation is still active, only the division Pfalz belongs now to the new founded state Rheinland-Pfalz after Worldwar Second. The size of Bavaria is mostly unchanged since 1816, only the region Coburg came by vote of the related people about 1923 to Bavaria and the Pfalz was lost. Now we find our village Kriegshaber which was part of the Markgrafschaft Burgau belonging to Austria before 1806, as a bavarian village, belonging to the division Schwaben and the district of Göggingen, lateron called Augsburg. Originally the administration of all villages and towns in the whole kingdom was controlled centrally at Munich, with the new constitution of Bavaria at 1818 the villages got some separate administration. But at this time the basics of the Kataster was already finished, although some reglementations were improved at 1832 and 1848/1852. At 1916 the village Kriegshaber became a part of the city of Augsburg, which has nowadays (2014) a population of about 270.000 people. Kriegshaber is a part (Stadtteil) of it with about 17.000 people. The size of Kriegshaber is almost unchanged since 1808, where we have a detailed description of the boarders of the village in the Kataster of 1810. At 1938 some parts of Oberhausen came to Kriegshaber.
Overview Cadastre of Kriegshaber
Änderungsstand: dokubayrkatasteren 15-Dez-2018
Änderungsstand Programm: 18-Feb-2019